THE FEATURES OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF BUCCAL EPITHILIUM CELLULAR COMPOSITION IN A NICOTINE INTOXICATION
To determine the cytological criteria that allow prediction of occurrence and course of inflammation of the oral mucosa and periodontal tissues, we performed cytological study of buccal epithelium of young people who have the habit smoking.
Material for the study was buccal epithelium taken from 25 young men. The main criterion for selection among this group has served the presence of adverse habits smoking, duration of which does not exceed the period of 1 - 3 years, and the absence of concomitant somatic pathology.
The epithelium was taken with a spatula and then transferred to a glass slide with subsequent drying in the open access of air for 3-5 minutes. Colouring of the material was carried out by Romanovskii- Himza, followed by microscopic and morphological analysis, taking into account the percentage of various forms of normal epithelial cells.
In exploring the cellular composition of cytogram, we defined the following percentage of epithelial cells for different classes of persons of surveyed contingent, and it is - 2,5 ± 0,15: 91,1 ± 2,13: 4,2 ± 0,22: 2,2 ± 0,11.
These data significantly differ from that of the percentage of normal buccal epithelium  and from the values we specified regarding value of epithelial cells of cheek in young men in normal condition.
Described by us type of cytogram corresponds to cyto-morphological picture of chronic catarrhal inflammation - typical pathological process that occurs due to injure of the buccal epithelium by traumatic agents in case of nicotine - complex thermal and chemical effects. In terms of the impact of nicotine on the buccal epithelial cells, we were able to observe both qualitative and quantitative changes in the cell structure.
Quantitative changes occur as a violation of the percentage of epithelial cells with a significant reduction in the number of horny scales compared with the control group, and the emergence of parabasal epithelial cells. Qualitative changes are accompanied by a reduction of eosinophilic granules and eosinophilic structures in the cells of the intermediate and surface layers, emergence of epithelial cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and irregular contours of plasmolemma.
The obtained results regarding the cyto-specificity of quantitative characteristics make it possible to determine the percentage changes in epithelial cells as a significant reduction in the number of horny scales compared with the control group, and the emergence of parabasal epithelial cells. Qualitative changes have a reduced number of eosinophilic granules and eosinophilic structures in the cells of the intermediate and surface layers, the appearance of epithelial cells with vacuolised cytoplasm and irregular plasmolemma contours.
In the result, the features of reconstruction of the cellular composition of the oral mucosa were received. Study of pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory and precancerous processes in specified anatomical localization and serve as the theoretical basis for optimization of patient’s examination algorithms and determining the criteria of pathological processes emergence in healthy individuals were made.
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