COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF DECAYED PERMANENT TEETH IN CHILDREN USING INDICES NIK, ICDAS AND QUALITY OF THEIR DENTAL HEALTH BY EGOHID CRITERIA
An assessment of dental caries severity of the permanent teeth in children has been carried out via studying DMF, SIC, ICDAS II indices and quality of their dental health by EGOHID criteria. Analysis of intensity of permanent tooth caries by the ICDASII 4-6 index has shown that its average value in the age group of 7-year-olds is 1.13±0.06 teeth, while by the ICDASII 1-6 index it is 1.72±0.06 teeth. It has been estimated that with age the values of both indices grow. Average value of ICDASII 4-6 is increased in 3.08 times till 12, and in 5.69 times till 15. The significant increasing in the number of affected teeth with code 1 (the first visible changes on the surface of enamel after prolonged drying) and code 2 (an obvious visual changes enamel) with age has been assessed statistically. Thus, the number of carious lesions with the code 1 from 7 to 15 years old has been increased from 0.26 ± 0.09 teeth to 1.10 ± 0.17 teeth, and the number of carious lesions with the code 2 has been increased from 0.33 ± 0.09 teeth to 2.21 ± 0.30 teeth. The medium stage of dental caries, characterized by localized visible destruction of tooth enamel, is signed by the code 3 in the case when there is a visible localized destruction of enamel with no signs of dentine injuring (the code 3 by ICDAS II index) or translucence darkening under the enamel dentine (code 4). The number of cavities with the code 3 per child tends to increase with age, but their number with the code 4 (ICDAS II) has increased slightly. The same tendency goes with deep carious lesions (code 5 and 6 code of ICDAS II index). It has been set that in 7-year-old children the average index value of SIC is 2.56±0.14 teeth at DMF=0.93±0.13 of teeth, in 15-year-old age is 8.59±0.43 teeth at DMF=5.40±0.31 of teeth. Analysis of children’s responses to the question "How do you assess the state of your teeth?" (Indicator D1) has revealed that with age self-estimation is changing. The percentage of children who evaluates the condition of their teeth as excellent has been increased from 12 to 15 years old from 4.00 ± 1.96% to 9.00 ± 2.86%, while the number of persons who is hesitant has been reduced from 15.00 ± 3.57% to 6.00 ± 2.37%. Processing and analyzing the results of the responses on indicator D3 have shown that from 12 to 15 years old the number of persons that are “satisfied” of appearance of their teeth has been reduced from 59.00±4.92% to 55.0±4.97 %, and the number of persons who cannot answer this question has been reduced from 26.00±4.39% to 18.00±3.84%, while the proportion of “dissatisfied” children has been increased from 15.00±3.57% to 25.00±4.33%. The responses of children to the question “How often do you feel toothache for the last 12 months” (Indicator D2) and “Did you leave the lessons or miss classes because of toothache?” (Indicator D5) have been analyzed. It has been established that with age (from 12 to 15 years) the proportion of children who often feels toothache (from 4.00±1.96% to 5.00±2.18%) and those who felt it significantly increases, but rarely (from 38.00±4.72% to 45.0±4.97%). Among the 12-year-old surveyed children while answering the question “Did you leave the lessons or miss classes because of toothache?” (Indicator D5) 10.00±3.00% answered positively, the amount of these children has decreased to 6.00±2.47% till 15. Subjective indicators are complemented with researches of stomatological status and give information about the risk factors of dental diseases’ origin and their influence on children’s life quality.
2. Гринишин О.Б. Порівняльна оцінка ураженості карієсом тимчасових молярів у дітей з використанням індексу ICDAS ІІ / О.Б. Гринишин, Е.В. Безвушко // Вісник стоматології. – 2014. - №1. – С. 69-74.
3. Леус П. А. Коммунальная стоматология / П. А. Леус. – Брест: ОАО “Брестская типография”, 2000. – 284 с.
4. A new approach to reliability assessment of dental caries examinations/ Altarakemah Y., Al-Sane M., LimS. [et al.] // Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. - 2013: 41: 309–316.
5. Appendix Criteria Manual International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) Revised in December and July 2009 Bogota, Colombia and Budapest / D. Banting, C. Deery, H. Eggertsson [et al.]. – 2009. - P. 31.
6. Feasibility of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) in epidemiology and comparability with standard WHO criteria / BragaM.M. [et al.] // Caries Research. – 2009. – Vоl. 43. – P. 245-249.
7. Bratthal D. Introducing the Significant Caries Index together with a proposal for a new oral health goal for 12-year-olds / Bratthal D. // Int. Dent. J. - 2000. -№50. - P. 378-384.
8. Bulletin of the World Health Organization / Bourgeois D.M. [et al.]. – 2005. – №83 (9). – P. 686 - 693.
9. EGOHID. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate-General. Health Surveillance in Europe. A Selection of Essential Oral Health Indicators. 2005 Catalogue. Ed. by D.M.Bourgeois [et al.], EC. www.egohid.eu.
10. International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) Coordinating Committee: Appendix Criteria Manual. Bogota, Colombia and Budapest, Hungary, 2009 (www.icdas.org).
11. Caries diagnosis: agreement between WHO and ICDAS-II criteria in epidemiological survays / Iranzo- Cortes J.E. [et al.] // Community Dental Health. – 2012. – Vоl. 30. – P. 108-111.
12. Caries experience of some countries and areas expressed by the Significant Caries Index / Nishi M. [et al.] // Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. – 2002. –№30. – P. 296-301.