INVESTIGATION OF THE OPTICAL BONE DENSITY OF THE ALVEOLAR PROCESSES IN THE AREA OF DEFECTS OF DENTITION

  • S.A. German Kharkiv national medical university, orthopedic dentistry department
Keywords: computed tomography, optical density, dentition defect, partial removable laminar dentures, and lifespan of removable dentures.

Abstract

Special non-invasive methods of investigating the condition of bone tissue have been developed and introduced into clinical practice in recent decades, allowing with high accuracy to detect changes of optical density of bone tissue of the alveolar process of the jaws. Accurate determination of bone density of the alveolar bone is of paramount importance for diagnosis, treatment planning and dental procedures in periodontal disease, osteoporosis, osteointegrated implants were used.

Usually densitometric indices are used for the quantitative evaluation of density structures and visualized by the method of computer tomography or the quantitative evaluation of density structures visualized using the method of computer tomography, the Hounsfield scale (HU) is called. This is the scale of linear attenuation of radiation in relation to distilled water, x-ray density at standard pressure and temperature were taken as 0 HU.

Accurate determination of bone density of the alveolar bone is the paramount importance for diagnosis, treatment planning and dental procedures in periodontal disease, osteoporosis, use osteointegrated implants.

To obtain a stable functioning implantation system, it is necessary to clearly define the amount of bone tissue to reveal the bone quality of the alveolar division of the jaw.

The aim of the study was to determine the optical density of bone tissue of the alveolar process for selection and justification of the design of the partial removable prosthesis, as well as the prediction of the timing operation.

Investigation of the optical bone density of the alveolar bone in the defect area of the dentition, was carried out on x-ray computed tomography by quantitative three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography using the apparatus of the "Veraviewepocs 3D". The method is based on determination of attenuation coefficients of x- ray radiation with matter.

60 computer tomograms (32 women and 28 men) with healthy periodontium were analyzed. The patients were divided into 4 groups depending on the time of tooth loss. The cases which applied the osteogenic drugs after surgery, tooth extraction, and patients with General diseases were excluded from the study. The first group is represented by patients with the early period of removal - from 10 to 14 days. The second group had an average removal time is 15 to 30 days. The third group included patients with a long term removal from 1 to 3 months. The fourth group includes patients who have used removable partial acrylic dentures - from 3 months to 3 years. The control group consisted of 20 patients with intact dentition. In each group of patients on three- dimensional CT scan determined the optical density of bone tissue of the alveolar bone in the defect area of the dentition in units Hounsfeld (od. HU) , and studied its changes depending on the time of tooth extraction using free program "OneVolumeViewer".

As a result of our research determined the optical density of bone tissue of alveolar processes of jaws in the region of defects of the dentition, which varies from 420,445±5,264 до 2829,754±3,535 HU. The optical density of a compact plate can be regarded as constant. With early (recent) removal of teeth observed decrease in optical density of bone tissue of alveolar processes with strong dependence on time of removal and use of removable dentures. At small time after removal (10 to 14 days) optical density of bone tissue was -420,445±5,264 to 309,744±5,226 HU, with the average timeframe (from 15 to 30 days) - 105,232±2,411 to 1564,972±4,019 HU, in the long term (1 to 3 months) - from 212,684±3,122 to 2103,841±3,604 HU, and during the use of removable dentures (1 to 3 years) from 5225,329±3,088 to 2453,991±3,435 HU.

The obtained data gave the possibility to state the fact of change of optical density of bone tissue of the al- veolar process in the early use of removable dentures, as well as increasing bone density of the alveolar bone in sustainable depending on the period of time after tooth removal.

The results of measurement of optical density of bone tissue of the alveolar process allow you to choose the tactics of treatment of the patient, to carry out the choice of denture construction, and to predict the period of use and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

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Published
2018-03-21
How to Cite
German, S. (2018). INVESTIGATION OF THE OPTICAL BONE DENSITY OF THE ALVEOLAR PROCESSES IN THE AREA OF DEFECTS OF DENTITION. Ukrainian Dental Almanac, (4), 43-48. Retrieved from https://dental-almanac.org/index.php/journal/article/view/220
Section
ORTHOPEDIC DENTISTRY