THE MODERN APPROACH TO THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS FOR DIAGNOSIS IN DENTISTRY
In this work there are features of delivering the therapeutic dentistry students in dental faculties on the application of diagnostic algorithms to make a diagnosis. One of the main feature of education dentists is to diagnose a patient, ability to use the objective methods of examination and chose the additional and laboratory methods. This leads to the correct diagnosis using these accepted classifications. Clinical diagnosis of patients has medical recognition option which is defined by pathological conditions, processes or biological objects. The medical recognition option includes a clinical diagnosis and prognosis of the process, identification of any substances or microorganisms etc. Development of recognition algorithms is a complex process that requires certain skills and a lot of experience. However, the way of revealing the disease should be economical. Therefore, the particular interest is to use a ready-recognition algorithms that were created by experienced professionals. These algorithms can be used in teaching dentists for making the diagnosis, makes it possible to eliminate a number of diagnostic errors, helps to think correctly, to find optimal diagnosis, to develop a doctor tactics for a variety of situations. Diagnostic algorithm is a precise instruction on commonly phased implementation of elementary mental operations and actions to establish all diseases in a defined sequence. The main task of the teacher at the practical lessons is to study students for the correct and logical sequence of actions, skills and ideas which helps them for defining the diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other similar diseases. Diagnostic algorithm give a way to the diagnosis, defines all actions of a doctor that he must do for establishing the diagnosis. The starting point for this is a syndrome that is understood as a symptom. It is common for any disease of various organs and systems, regardless of the etiology and pathogenesis of a diseases, as well as the affected organ or system (eg., pain, swelling, asymmetry of the face, radiological signs, etc.).We should note that the concept "syndrome" will include some significant symptoms, which in turn has a quite diverse characteristic. The basis of the diagnostic algorithm underline the principle of a syndromic clinical thinking and a principle of the optimal diagnostic relevance. The principle of optimal diagnostic expediency include an effective differential diagnosis of a disease, accurate recognition of a disease with a minimum amount of medical research and a minimum number of main symptoms. Some symptoms has high diagnostic value and helps to diagnose a disease, and others are not so useful for differentiating. Therefore, the main task is to select main features and symptoms. Training is needed to solve different situational problems for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. In particular, the most common for therapeutic dentistry is a differential diagnosis of deep cavities and medium, deep caries and acute pulpitis, acute pulpitis and exacerbation of acute or chronic periodontitis, carious and non-carious lesions of teeth hard tissues, periodontal disease, infectious and non-infectious mucous membrane diseases of the mouth, oral cavity cancer pathology, inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the temporomandibular joint and others. After the differential diagnosis with other similar diseases we take into account additional instrumental and laboratory methods. It give an opportunity to confirm the preliminary diagnosis and advanced clinical diagnosis. Diagnosis in preventive dentistry should be based on the application of classifications of diseases which clearly indicate the type of disease, the degree of prevalence of pathological process. In addition, a students and doctors should pay a special attention on a combination of several types of diseases in one patient during the diagnosis. Thus, a right and logical diagnosis in a patient creates conditions for the preparation of a comprehensive plan of treatment. It should be based on the use of modern techniques and materials. It sould eliminates pain symptoms, restores function and aesthetics.
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