THE ROLE OF MIRNAS IN TYMORIGENESIS.LITERATURE REVIEW.
Introduction. There are many diagnostic techniques in modern medicine, that enable preoperative and postoperative human neoplasms verification (identification).There are a number of postoperative diagnostic techniques, namely his to pathological, immunohistochemical and genetic one. The last-mentioned is rather popular. One of the genetic approaches in tumor diagnostics is the examination of the role of microRNA molecules.
The aim of our work is to reveal the role of microRNA molecules on tumor genesis in accordance with the literature review.
Research findings.A microRNA is a small non-coding RNA consisting of approximately 22 nucleotides andit is found in all eukaryotic cells. Up to now, we know about 2588 microRNAs. The review of the majority of literature sources has shown, that microRNA molecules may impact on significant biological processes: cell cycle control, apoptosis, metabolism, cellular development and differentiation along with the development of the wide range of diseases: neurodegenerative, metabolic disorders and cancer. Furthermore, they may regulate carcinoma-dependent processes – proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, play a crucial role in stem cells differentiation and control cancer stem cells formation and obtaining of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype, which is directly connected with drug resistance. Using of microRNA profiles we can differentiate sound and cancer tissues, identify the tissue`s origin and distinguish different subtypes of certain cancer or even specific oncogenic deviations (abnormities) and prognosticate the result or response to therapy.
Nowadays, its usage in human neoplasms diagnostics made it possible to create a promising area in malignant tumor treatment that in addition to chemotherapy extends lifespan of oncology patients. And the examination of the role of microRNA on such processes as apoptosis and interaction with cytokines makes it possible to know about new mechanisms of pathogenesis in the development of the majority of tumors and particularly salivary gland tumors (pleomorphic adenomas). The ability of the microRNA identification in various biological fluids (blood, saliva) allows us to receive further information regarding one or another pathology and the examination of tumor biopsy for the presence of these markers helps us to increase the probability of tumor verification. Treatment development with usage of exosomal microRNA for the regeneration of damaged organs of an adult offers new opportunities in the therapy of various diseases.
Conclusions. Thus, genetic tumor research methods (microRNA) are an advanced technology that allows us to increase tumor identification, to make an impact on different biological processes, to differentiate and classify the most of tumors of the body, and to adopt state-of-the-art medicines and prognosticate the result or response to therapy.
2. Malanchuk VO. Hіrurgіchna stomatologіja ta shhelepno-liceva hіrurgіja. Kiїv: Logos; 2011.606 c.
3. Acunzo M, Romano G, Wernicke D, Croce CM. MicroRNA and cancer—a brief overview. Adv Biol Regul. 2015; 57:1-9.
4. Calin GA, Dumitru CD, Shimizu M, Bichi R, Zupo S, Noch E, et al. Frequent deletions and down-regulation of micro-RNA genes miR15 and miR16 at 13q14 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:15524-9.
5. Baranwal S, Alahari SK. miRNA control of tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Int J Cancer 2010;126:1283-90.
6. Heinrich EM, Dimmeler S. MicroRNAs and stem cells control of pluripotency, reprogramming, and lineage commitment. Circ Res 2012;110:1014-22.
7. Adam L, Zhong M, Choi W, Qi W, Nicoloso M, Arora A, et al. miR-200 expression regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in bladder cancer cells and reverses resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Clin Cancer Res Off J Am Assoc Cancer Res 2009;15:5060-72.
8. Iorio MV, Croce CM. microRNA involvement in human cancer. Carcinogenesis 2012;33:1126-33.
9. Caramuta S, Egyhazi S, Rodolfo M, Witten D, Hansson J, Larsson C, et al. MicroRNA expression profiles associated with mutational status and survival in malignant melanoma. J Investig Dermatol 2010;130:2062-70.
10. Rabinowits G, Gercel-Taylor C, Day JM, Taylor DD, Kloecker GH. Exosomal microRNA: a diagnostic marker for lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer 2009;10:42-6.
11. Rosenfeld N, Aharonov R, Meiri E, Rosenwald S, Spector Y, Zepeniuk M, et al. MicroRNAs accurately identify cancer tissue origin. Nat Biotechnol 2008;26:462-9.
12. Png KJ, Halberg N, Yoshida M, Tavazoie SF. A microRNA regulon that mediates endothelial recruitment and metastasis by cancer cells. Nature 2012;481:190-4.
13. Drusco A, Nuovo GJ, Zanesi N, Di Leva G, Pichiorri F, Volinia S, et al. MicroRNA profiles discriminate among colon cancerт metastasis. PLoS One 2014;9:96670.
14. Schwarzenbach H, Nishida N, Calin GA, Pantel K. Clinical relevance of circulating cell-free microRNAs in cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2014;11:145-56.
15. Creemers EE, Tijsen AJ, Pinto YM. Circulating microRNAs: novel biomarkers and extracellular communicators in cardiovascular disease? Circ Res 2012;110:483-95.
16. Lagana A, Acunzo M, Romano G, Pulvirenti A, Veneziano D, Cascione L, et al. miR-Synth: a computational resource for the design of multi-site multi-target synthetic miRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res 2014;42:5416-25.
17. Choi KY, Silvestre OF, Huang XL, Hida N, Liu G, Ho DN, et al. A nanoparticle formula for delivering siRNA or miRNAs to tumor cells in cell culture and in vivo. Nat Protoc 2014;9: 1900-15.
18. Toru H, Matthew PH. Exosomal microRNA communication between tissues during organogenesis. RNA Biol. 2017; 14(12): 1683–1689.
19. Kerr JF, Wyllie AH, Currie AR. Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br J Cancer. 1972;26:239–257.
20. Reed JC. Apoptosis-based therapies. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2002;1:111–121.
21. Jaffe R, Flugelman MY, Halon DA, Lewis BS. Ventricular remodeling: from bedside to molecule. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 430:257–266.
22. Xu C, Lu Y, Pan Z, Chu W, Luo X, Lin H, Xiao J, Shan H, Wang Z, Yang B. The muscle-specific microRNAs miR-1 and miR-133 produce opposing effects on apoptosis by targeting HSP60, HSP70 and caspase-9 in cardiomyocytes. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3045–3052.
23. Soini Y, Törmänen U, Pääkkö P. Apoptosis is inversely related to bcl-2 but not to bax expression in salivary gland tumours. Histopathology. 1998; 32:28–34.
24. Cinpolat O, Unal ZN, Ismi O, Gorur A, Unal M. Comparison of microRNA profiles between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors in tissue, blood and saliva samples: a prospective, case-control study. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2017; Jun;83(3):276-284
25. Gupta R, Balasubramanian D, Clark JR. Salivary gland lesions: recent advances and evolving concepts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015; 119(6):661–674.
26. Andreasen S, Therkildsen MH, Grauslund M, Friis-Hansen L, Wessel I, Homøe P. Activation of the interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway in pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. APMIS 2015; 123:706–715.
27. Garofalo M, Condorelli GL, Croce CM, Condorelli G. MicroRNAs as regulators of death receptors signaling. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17(2):200-8.
28. Zhang X, Cairns M, Rose B, O’Brien C, Shannon K, Clark J, et al. Alterations in miRNA processing and expression in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland. Int J Cancer. 2009;124: 2855-63.
29. Schmidt RL, Hall BJ, Wilson AR, Layfield LJ. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for parotid gland lesions. Am J Clin Pathol 2011;136:45–59.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.