INTERACTION BETWEEN DENTO-MAXILLOFACIAL ANOMALIES AND GENERAL-SOMATIC HUMAN CONDITION (LITERATURE REVIEW)

  • L.V. Smaglyuk Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine
  • H.V. Voronkova Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine
  • A.Ye. Karasiunok Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine
  • A.V. Liakhovska Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine
  • V.I. Smaglyuk Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine
Keywords: malocclusions, somatic pathology, interdisciplinary approach.

Abstract

The main task of modern orthodontics is to create a balanced and morphologically stable occlusion in harmony with facial aesthetics and functional adaptation. Over the last decade, there has been a clear trend towards an increase in the prevalence of malocclusion, which reaches 80% according to current scientific literature and sometimes it exceeds this percentage. Researchers note a constant and statistically significant correlation between the permanent occlusion pathology and the state of somatic health in adolescence. On the other hand, the interdisciplinary approach is one of the most urgent tasks of modern orthodontics and a constant object of searching for new methods of diagnosis and treatment.

The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between dento-facial anomalies and somatic pathology.

Materials and methods. Literary sources were reviewed on the relationship of malocclusion with the general diseases and the obtained data were analysed.

Discussion. The human body is a biological system consisting of interconnected and subordinate elements. The peculiarities of their structure and relations are subordinated to their functioning as part of a single integral mechanism. Most authors note the existence of a direct interconnection between the general somatic pathology and anomalies of the dento-facial system. When analysing the literature data, several major groups of diseases that have the greatest impact on the development of the dento-facial system are clearly distinguished: diseases of the ENT organs, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine and musculoskeletal systems. At present the scientists have substantiated the concept of commonality of factors that shape both dental status and state of somatic health. An increase in the frequency of dento-facial anomalies and deformations in 1,6-2,3 times is noted in disorder of the musculoskeletal system. In this category of children, deep incisor occlusion, distal occlusion and neutral occlusion with anomalies of individual teeth predominate. In children with scoliosis, 72.9-84.3% of cases are diagnosed with dento-facial anomalies and deformations. The position of the jaws has an effect on the spatial orientation of the head and this in turn affects the position of other structures of the body. Some researchers point to the “anterior” position of the head of patients with dysfunction of the temporomandibular joints associated with the shortening of the extensors of the sternocleidomastoid muscles. Research showed that in 89,3% of cases, children with bronchial asthma have dento-facial anomalies. Adolescence is one of the critical periods of human life, since it is precisely in adolescence that the neuroendocrine system begins to function, and sex hormones which affect the development of many body systems and the formation of reproductive health are produced. Under the action of steroid hormones, an active development of the musculoskeletal system occurs, which is manifested by the acceleration of total body growth and dento-maxillofacial growth. Insufficient secretion of estrogen leads to impaired bone mineralization and may cause abnormalities in the maxillofacial area. Impaired growth and development of the dento-facial system was detected in case of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis, one third of the patients were examined. The skeletal pathology of the Angle I class, as well as impaired functional state of the TMJ were diagnosed. Thyroid hormone and thyroxin stimulates growth in the sphenoid-occipital synchondrosis, nasal cartilage and the growth of the upper jaw in the area of bone sutures, thereby determining of the size and position of the upper jaw. As a result of a decrease in thyroxin level, there is a delay in craniofacial growth, disproportional development, retroposition of the upper jaw and decrease in the length of the mandible.

Thus, the correlation of malocclusion in children and adolescents with common diseases arise. Therefore, the diagnosis, tactics of treatment and prevention of dental anomalies and deformities should be considered in the context of the integrity of the unformed organism of the child, the interdependence of the form and functions of its organs and systems.

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Published
2019-12-26
How to Cite
Smaglyuk, L., Voronkova, H., Karasiunok, A., Liakhovska, A., & Smaglyuk, V. (2019). INTERACTION BETWEEN DENTO-MAXILLOFACIAL ANOMALIES AND GENERAL-SOMATIC HUMAN CONDITION (LITERATURE REVIEW). Ukrainian Dental Almanac, (4), 45-51. https://doi.org/10.31718/2409-0255.4.2019.08
Section
ORTHODONTICS