MODERN DIAGNOSTICS METHODS OF NON-SPECIFIC PROTECTION OF PERIODONTAL TISSUES IN RESIDENTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REGION
The aim of the article is to study the peculiarities of antimicrobial immunity of the oral cavity of the industrial region’s inhabitants in order to optimize special preventive programs of major dental diseases.
The object and research methods. 178 patients was examined from 21 to 50 years old, who turned to the University Dental Center of Zaporizhzhia State Medical University. The study group consisted of 126 patients with generalized periodontitis of the initial (8), I (32), II (68) and III (18) degree of chronic course, complicated by harmful factors of manufacturing. The comparison group consisted of 32 patients with periodontitis (5), I (10), II (11) and III (6) degrees who did not work in adverse conditions. The control group consisted of 20 relatively healthy individuals aged from 19 to 25 years without signs of generalized periodontitis.
To study the factors of local immunity of the oral cavity, oral fluid was collected from each examined person, which was obtained without stimulation, spitting into sterile tubes. Then the oral fluid was centrifuged for 15 minutes at 8,000 rpm. The supernatant part of the oral liquid was poured into plastic tubes and stored at 30°C. The quantitative determination of markers in the oral fluid was performed by standard enzyme immunoassay kits according to the instructions of the "Lactoferrin-strip" ("VectorBest") manufacturers. The result was expressed in mµg / ml. The content of cathelicidin LL-37 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using NycultBiotechhuman LL-37 ELISA (Netherlands) firm reagent kit-manufacturers. The result was expressed in µg / ml. Statistica 13.0 licensed number JPZ804I382130ARCN10-J was used to process the results.
The results of the study and their discussion. The hygienic condition in the examined patients of the study group was assessed as unsatisfactory: from 2.24 ± 0.5 to 2.99 ± 0.47 points depending on the age and length of service at the enterprise, but the PI and SBI values were increased.
It was found, that the lactoferrin level in the oral fluid was higher in the all patients with periodontitis, than the same index in comparison with healthy control group and consistently increased with increasing severity of the process. In the patients’ study group, working in hazardous conditions of production, the lactoferrin content has increased in the oral fluid relative to the level of the healthy patients was more pronounced in comparison with the patients, suffering of periodontal tissue disease, but do not work in harmful manufacturing conditions. Increased lactoferrin in the oral fluid in the steelmaking workers can be considered as a means of compensation, that provides protection of the oral mucosa from colonization of microorganisms.
In the steel industry workers, a statistically significant cathelicidin content decrease in the oral fluid was observed compared to healthy control patients’ group. In the clinical group of the patients without adverse factors of production, the cathelicidin’s concentration in the oral fluid was also reduced.
The increasing level of lactoferrin in the oral fluid in parallel with the cathelicidin’s decrease in saliva are markers of the inflammatory phase, as well as the destructive phase of connective tissue.
Conclusions. Thus, our observations have established a direct relationship between the lactoferrin’s concentration in the oral fluid and the severity of periodontal tissue diseases and the feedback between the cathelicidin’s content in the oral liquid and the activity of the pathological process.
The determination of lactoferrin and cathelicidin in the oral fluid of the patients with harmful manufacturing factors allow us to identify the signs of pathological process in the oral cavity.
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