ANALYSIS OF MODERN ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF PATHOLOGICAL ABRASION DEVELOPMENT OF HARD TISSUES OF TEETH (ACCORDING TO LITERATURE SOURCES)
Relevance. Tooth abrasion is an inevitable consequence of their evolutionarily determined purpose of acquiring food through predation, detention, capture, grinding, chewing and swallowing. The mechanism of odontogenesis, according to which the amelogenesis of enamel ends with the death of ameloblasts before eruption, makes it impossible to recover enamel after damaging. Accordingly, any damage of any source is reflected on the hardest and oldest remains of creatures with teeth forever. Thus, tooth abrasion has a multifactorial origin and is based on diet and eating habits, oral hygiene, bruxism, brushing habits, xerostomia, anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflex disease, vomiting, bulimia, and medications. Because enamel is the most wear-resistant tissue, the hardness and thickness of the enamel become evolutionary responses to environmental and dietary changes. In different periods of human development, there were certain, inherent in the time and territory of residence, taste preferences, eating habits, cooking methods, popular dishes. Constant acceleration, efforts to be on time everywhere, urbanization and industrialization have forced people to adapt, change their habits, including food. Fast food has become popular: chips, nuts, crackers and other snacks. Sour sauces and various salad dressings are added to them. A large selection of carbonated sweet drinks, or containing natural juices, gradually displace the habit of plain water drinking. On the other hand, modern fast-paced life causes increased nervous load, chronic stress, irritability and constant fatigue, which in turn affects the tone of the masticatory muscles. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the presence of somatic diseases, behavioral habits, individual characteristics of the bite, working conditions. Impact of numerous factors lead to changes of old hard tissues. Different types and forms of tooth abrasion are a great example of this. Among the non-caries lesions that develop after the eruption of permanent teeth, tooth abrasion is a common problem.
Purpose of the research: to study contemporary etiological factors of developing of tooth abrasion (according to the literature).
Object of the research: sources of domestic and foreign literature.
Results of the research. According to the opinion of some authors, tooth abrasion is an irreversible loss of tooth substance caused by physical, chemical and mechanical factors excluding caries and acute injury. Note, there are several factors present in each clinical case and one of them is dominant. Currently, there is a significant increase in tooth abrasion prevalence because of contacts with acids that are present in food, drinks and gastric juice. This pathology is a complex condition and its progress depends on influence of chemical, biological and behavioural factors. Tooth abrasion is not present in all people, who are predisposed to this disease. The relationship between enamel genes and tooth abrasion propensity has been identified. The prevalence is higher among males. There is a proved connection between changes in the gene responsible for the enamel creation and lower tendency to abrasion in females. Analyses have shown a significant connection between variation in enamel genes and less susceptibility to tooth abrasion in women. Thus, the occurrence of tooth abrasion can be genetically determined and have a gender difference. This can be explained by the fact that men have better developed masticatory muscles. In young people, who visit gyms more commonly, tooth abrasion is the prevalent diagnosis especially local forms. In patients with bruxism, the forces applied to the teeth are bigger and the tooth abrasion is higher too. Peculiarities of occlusion are also possible factors of tooth abrasion. The most prominent tooth abrasion occurs in patients with straight bite. Teeth and jaws development abnormalities also cause tooth abrasion. People aged 45-64 and 65+ were 1.3 and 1.4 times more likely to have teeth with moderate to severe abrasion, respectively, compared to people aged 18-44. In adult men, the prevalence of tooth abrasion is 20% higher than in adult women. Adults who have used occlusal splints have a higher prevalence of tooth abrasion than those who have never used them. The prevalence of the disease in children older than 12 years was found to be 50% lower than in children younger than 12 years. No association was found between tooth abrasion and orthodontic treatment, absence of teeth, race or ethnicity.
There is a close connection between the frequency and degree of tooth abrasion and age of workers, as well as work experience in harmful production. There is a growth of the pathology among workers of antimony and mercury industries. Damaging factors exist in the process of production of iron ore. Moreover, the height of the city above sea level changes the dynamics and clinical picture of the disease too. The highest rate of the horizontal type was found in (78.3%) people living in alpine zone, while in the medium mountains it was 68.4%. In the low-mountains the prevalence of the horizontal form of tooth abrasion was 46.9% only. Localized tooth abrasion in alpine areas is almost twice as frequent (65.5%) as the generalised forms (34.7%). Localized tooth abrasion was more typical for urban residents, and generalised for rural.
Socio-economic status can also contribute to tooth abrasion. In their study, the authors found a much higher value of it in the lowest socio-economic category. This link between brushing teeth and socioeconomic factors may be related to diet, lifestyle habits, oral health awareness, or the choice of prosthetic techniques.
Conclusion. Based on the study of sources in domestic and foreign literature, the authors showed great interest in the problem of the prevalence of tooth abrasion. However, the question of the etiology of the localized form is given insufficient attention, which requires further study.
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