ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN
Viral diseases with oral manifestations are common in the practice of pedodontist, however, sometimes their diagnosis is complicated due to the similar clinical manifestations. A huge number of viruses are present in oral cavity, especially from Herpesviridae family, however, the most of them are asymptomatic. Cold, systemic diseases and stress provoke the activation of viruses with different clinical manifestations. Therefore, a dentist can be the first who diagnoses not only herpetic gingivostomatitis, but also other viral diseases.
The aim of the article was to analyse the oral manifestations of viral diseases in children in order to optimize their diagnostics.
This article analyses clinical cases and reviews of diseases in English in Google database from 2011 to May 2020 (and earlier publications) by
«herpetic gingivostomatitis», «recurrent aphthous stomatitis», «oral manifestations of infectious mononucleosis», «herpetic angina», «oral manifestations of cytomegalovirus infection», «recurrent herpetic gingivostomatitis», «oral manifestations of varicella virus», «oral manifestations of herpes zoster», «roseola infantum», «herpangina», «hand, foot and mouth disease», «oral manifestations of measles», «rubella», «oral manifestations of papillomavirus», and «oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus».
Viruses which have oral manifestations were characterized by transmission. Mostly airborne viruses are represented by Herpesviridae family. The differential diagnosis of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis includes recurrent aphthous stomatitis which forms ulcers on non-keratinised oral mucosa without a vesicle phase. Recurrent herpetic infection doesn’t have difficulties in diagnostics, but could be complicated by erythema multiform with clear target lesions. Vesicles, erosions in oral cavity associated with vesicles on hear part of head help to distinguish chickenpox from herpetic infection. Compared to Herpes simplex virus infection, Herpes zoster has a longer duration, a more severe prodromal phase, unilateral vesicles and ulceration, with abrupt ending at the midline and postherpetic neuralgia. Roseola is characterized by small papules on skin and palate which appears when severe fever in prodromal period subsides and disappears after 1-2 days. Oral vesicles associated with foot and hand rush differentiate enterovirus stomatitis from chickenpox and roseola. The distribution of the lesions of herpangina (palate, tonsils) differentiates it from primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, which affects the gingivae.
Comparing with roseola and rubella, measles has a bigger size of rush and specific oral localization on buccal mucosa. Mild fever and skin rush which appears on face and extensor surfaces of body and extremities help to distinguish rubella from measles and roseola.
Viruses transmitted through biological liquids are represented in oral cavity by infectious mononucleosis and cytomegalovirus. The vesicles and ulcers on the tonsils and posterior pharynx in case of these infections can resemble herpetic stomatitis, but liver and spleen enlargement allows to exclude this diagnose; also cytomegalovirus erosions heal for long time. Cervical lymphoadenopathy differentiates them from herpetic angina. Laboratory diagnostics is based on detection of antibodies to virus or virus DNA in blood helps to make diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and cytomegalovirus infections.
Viruses transmitted through direct contact with mucosa and biological liquids represented by human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HPV in oral cavity represent by benign epithelial hyperplasia which might persist and transform to malignant. Therefore, histological examination plays important role in diagnostics of HPV.
Oral manifestations such as candidiasis, herpes labialis, and aphthous stomatitis represent some of the first signs of HIV immunodeficiency. Oral lesions also associated with HIV in children are oral hairy leukoplakia, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and Kaposi’s sarcoma. Rapid necrotization and long-term healing of oral lesions help to suspect HIV and prescribe the blood test for the detection of antibodies to the virus.
Oral mucosa is often the first to be affected by viral infections. A thorough anamnesis and examination is the key to accurate diagnostics of the most oral viral lesions and their adequate treatment. Biopsy, examination of antibodies to the virus in the blood or polymeraze-chain reaction to the virus in the bioptate or blood are performed in case of diagnostic difficulties. Laboratory methods had to use more widely for the diagnostics of recurrent or unclear lesions of the oral mucosa in children.
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