PREVALENCE AND STRUCTURE OF DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES AMONG STUDENTS OF DONETSK REGION
Harmonious facial aesthetics, proper bite, straight teeth are an integral part of individual psychological well-being and a modern person’s professional success. According to scientific studies, orthodontic pathology occupies third place in terms of incidence among dental diseases after dental caries and periodontal diseases. Being man-made polluted, the Donetsk region also has a high prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies. In 7-15 year old children, the incidence rate is 68-90%.
The aim of the study is to research the prevalence and structure of dentoalveolar anomalies among students of a medical university in the Donetsk region.
Materials and methods. To fulfill the purpose of the study we analyzed the orthodontic status of 300 Donetsk National Medical University students. Examinations of students were performed according to the generally accepted method in dentistry. The material of the clinical trial was subjected to variational-statistical analysis in accordance with the purpose of the study.
Results. The analysis of the study data showed that there were abnormalities in the attachment of the oral soft tissues, namely 56,0% (168/300) of those examined had a short bridle of the tongue, 20,0% (60/300) of students – a short bridle of the upper lip, 5,3% (16/300) patients – a short frenulum of the lower lip and 17,3% (52/300) of those examined – a shallow vestibule of the mouth. The data on the orthodontic status of the examined patients showed that the prevalence of dental anomalies was 98,7% (296/300). 64% (192/300) of examined subjects had anomalies of occlusion in combination with anomalies of individual teeth. Anomalies of individual teeth without occlusion pathology were diagnosed in 34,7% (104/300) of patients. 1,3% (4/300) of students have been found to be orthodontically healthy. Moreover, the case history of those examined shows that 30,7% (92/300) of students underwent orthodontic treatment in the past, which was not always successful. The external examination revealed facial signs of dentoalveolar anomalies in 50,0% (148/296) of students, which indicates the gnathic nature of orthodontic pathology. Deep bite (54,2%) and deep occlusion in combination with distal occlusion (25,0%) were significant. Class 2 pathology was detected in 10,4% (20/192) of individuals. The examination did not reveal any cases of open bite in the subjects. The prevalence of crossbite and mesial occlusion was low and amounted to 8,3% (16/192) and 2,1% (4/192) of cases, respectively. Teeth rotation was prevalent (71,6%; 212/296) among 296 students who had anomalies of individual teeth and dentition (isolated or combined with an occlusion anomaly). The results of the study indicate that 56,6% of those examined (120/212) had lower teeth rotation, 26,4% of subjects (56/212) presented with the combination of this pathology in both jaws, and tortoanomaly of upper teeth was found in 17,0% (36/212) of cases. Crowding of the frontal mandible segment was also a common pathology (58,1%;172/296), the first degree of this pathology’s severity being prevalent (79,0%; 136/172). Examination of students showed that 51,4% of subjects had a vestibular position of individual teeth (152/296). Oral position of teeth and crowding of the frontal upper segment were less common and were observed in 43,2% (128/296) and 29,7% (88/296) cases, respectively. Among the examined students diastemata and tremata were diagnosed in 13,5% (40/296) and 25,7% (76/296) cases, respectively. It should be noted that this pathology predominantly affected the upper jaw: diastema occured in 90% (36/40), and tremata in 57,9% (44/76) of cases. The examination revealed an abnormal inclination of the students’ front teeth. The overall prevalence of protrusion of incisors was 13,5% (40/296), maxillary protrusion of teeth being most prevalent (90%; 36/40). The incidence of incisor retrusion was 10,8% (32/296). Also, this pathology predominated in the upper jaw (87,5%; 28/32). The study of dentition disorders revealed the prevalence of transversely and sagittally oriented changes in the shape of dental arches. The results revealed that the shortening of the dentition was the most common dentition deformation, being detected in 66,9% (198/296) of cases. The narrowing of the dentition was found in 51,0% of subjects (151/296).
Conclusions. Such studies allow to improve the prevention principles of dentoalveolar anomalies and to organize the timely provision of specialized medical care.
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