• O.V. Sheshukova Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy (Poltava)
  • I.О. Kuz Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy (Poltava)
Keywords: gingivitis, type I diabetes mellitus, hygienic indexes, periodontal indexes, gum bleeding.


Gingivitis and periodontitis are two forms of periodontal disease that are well known as oral complications in diabetic patients. Particular attention should be paid to the diagnosis of periodontal disease at an early age among patients with this endocrinological pathology. The aim of this scientific work was to assess the gum bleeding and the state of the periodontium in children with type I diabetes mellitus during the periods of milk bite and period of mixed dentition.

Scientific studies of gingivitis during milk and variable occlusion in children with diabetes are quite rare. In addition, the period limited by the age ranges is transitional for the dental-maxillary system. This fact will allow us to have a great opportunity to study the differences from deciduous and permanent teeth.

258 children aged from six to fourteen were examined for this scientific work, namely 129 children with type I diabetes mellitus and 129 children without somatic diseases. All patients were divided into appropriate subgroups: somatically healthy children without signs of gingivitis, somatically healthy children with signs of gingivitis, children with type I diabetes mellitus without signs of gingivitis, children with type I diabetes mellitus with signs of gingivitis.

The hygiene index was determined according to Fedorov - Volodkina (1968) and OHI-S (Green, Vermillion, 1964). The periodontal condition was assessed by the PMA index (papillary-marginal-alveolar index) modified with Parma (1960). Bleeding index was determined according to Loe, Silness (1967), that is, the so-called gingival index (GI). We also calculated the bleeding index according to Muhleman H.R. (1971).

There was no statistically significant difference in the values of the intensity of caries, its prevalence and hygiene indexes in the group with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus compared with healthy children.

Our studies showed a statistically significant difference between the control group and patients with type I diabetes mellitus regarding periodontal indexes and gingival bleeding, consistent with existing data in the literature. Inflammatory processes in the periodontium of children and adults with diabetes mellitus have been increased. It is also very important to recognize this process as soon as possible.

The results of this research work determine that children with diabetes have a great risk of bleeding gums compared to children without diabetes.

We cannot say that gingivitis in children always lead to destructive periodontal disease in adulthood, a number of Ukrainian and foreign authors point out that children with insulin-dependent diabetes are more prone to periodontal destruction, than healthy ones. This is important because the most common periodontal diseases can be prevented even in people with an increased susceptibility to them and the development of destruction can be stopped by early detection of the disease in the early stages. Moreover, there is evidence that the treatment of periodontal disease in adults with diabetes has a positive effect on the level of metabolic control of these individuals.

Thus, in light of the current results, oral screening and preventive programs should emphasize the importance of timely diagnosis of periodontal disease even during the milk occlusion and period of mixed dentition, especially in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.


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