ANALYSIS OF HYGIENE AND PERIODONTAL INDEXES OF CHILDREN WITH I TYPE DIABETES MELLITUS
Gingivitis and periodontitis are two forms of periodontal disease that are well known as oral complications in diabetic patients. Particular attention should be paid to the diagnosis of periodontal disease at an early age among patients with this endocrinological pathology. The aim of this scientific work was to assess the gum bleeding and the state of the periodontium in children with type I diabetes mellitus during the periods of milk bite and period of mixed dentition.
Scientific studies of gingivitis during milk and variable occlusion in children with diabetes are quite rare. In addition, the period limited by the age ranges is transitional for the dental-maxillary system. This fact will allow us to have a great opportunity to study the differences from deciduous and permanent teeth.
258 children aged from six to fourteen were examined for this scientific work, namely 129 children with type I diabetes mellitus and 129 children without somatic diseases. All patients were divided into appropriate subgroups: somatically healthy children without signs of gingivitis, somatically healthy children with signs of gingivitis, children with type I diabetes mellitus without signs of gingivitis, children with type I diabetes mellitus with signs of gingivitis.
The hygiene index was determined according to Fedorov - Volodkina (1968) and OHI-S (Green, Vermillion, 1964). The periodontal condition was assessed by the PMA index (papillary-marginal-alveolar index) modified with Parma (1960). Bleeding index was determined according to Loe, Silness (1967), that is, the so-called gingival index (GI). We also calculated the bleeding index according to Muhleman H.R. (1971).
There was no statistically significant difference in the values of the intensity of caries, its prevalence and hygiene indexes in the group with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus compared with healthy children.
Our studies showed a statistically significant difference between the control group and patients with type I diabetes mellitus regarding periodontal indexes and gingival bleeding, consistent with existing data in the literature. Inflammatory processes in the periodontium of children and adults with diabetes mellitus have been increased. It is also very important to recognize this process as soon as possible.
The results of this research work determine that children with diabetes have a great risk of bleeding gums compared to children without diabetes.
We cannot say that gingivitis in children always lead to destructive periodontal disease in adulthood, a number of Ukrainian and foreign authors point out that children with insulin-dependent diabetes are more prone to periodontal destruction, than healthy ones. This is important because the most common periodontal diseases can be prevented even in people with an increased susceptibility to them and the development of destruction can be stopped by early detection of the disease in the early stages. Moreover, there is evidence that the treatment of periodontal disease in adults with diabetes has a positive effect on the level of metabolic control of these individuals.
Thus, in light of the current results, oral screening and preventive programs should emphasize the importance of timely diagnosis of periodontal disease even during the milk occlusion and period of mixed dentition, especially in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
2. Ivchenko LG, Domenyuk DA, Gil'miyarova FN. Vliyanie tyazhesti techeniya saharnogo diabeta I tipa u detej na stomatologicheskiy status i immunologicheskie, biohimicheskie pokazateli syvorotki krovi i rotovoj zhidkosti (Chast' I). [Influence of the severity of the course of type I diabetes mellitus in children on the dental status and immunological, biochemical parameters of blood serum and oral fluid (Part I)]. Parodontologiya. 2017; T. 22; 2(83):53-60. (Russian).
3. Kotel'ban AV. Ocіnka efektivnostі lіkuvannya hronіchnogo kataral'nogo gіngіvіtu v dіtej za umov cukrovogo dіabetu. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with diabetes mellitus]. Klіnіchna stomatologіya. 2017; 1:39-44. (Ukrainian).
4. Kuznyak NB, Godovanec' OІ, Moroz AV. Stomatologіchna patologіya u dіtey, hvorih na cukroviy dіabet I tipu. [Dental pathology in children with type I diabetes mellitus]. Pіvdennoukrayins'ki medichniy naukoviy zhurnal. 2014; 8:87-9. (Ukrainian). (Russian).
5. Nagieva SA. Sravnitel'naya ocenka zavisimosti sostoyaniya tkaney parodonta ot gigieny rotovoy polosti u zdorovyh detey, a takzhe u detey s saharnym diabetom 1-go tipa. [Comparative assessment of the dependence of the state of periodontal tissues on oral hygiene in healthy children, as well as in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus]. Vіsnik problem bіologіyi і medicini. 2017; 2:372-6. (Russian).
6. Skiba AV, Tereshina TP. Diabet i zabolevaniya parodonta. [Diabetes and periodontal disease]. Innovacii v stomatologii. 2014; 1:51-7. (Russian).
7. Sheshukova OV., Kuz' ІO., Maksimenko AІ. Rіven' stomatologіchnoyi zahvoryuvanostі u dіtey, hvorih na cukroviy dіabet. [The level of dental morbidity in children with diabetes]. Materіali naukovo-praktichnoyi konferencіyi z mіzhnarodnoyu uchastyu «Mul'tidisciplіnarniy pіdhіd v ortodontichnomu lіkuvannі»; 2020 listopad 12-13; Poltava. Poltava: UMSA; 2020, p.37. (Ukrainian).
8. Carneiro VL, Fraiz FC, Ferreira F de M, Pintarelli TP, Oliveira ACB, Boguszewski MC da S. The inuence of glycemic control on the oral health of children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1 Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 59(6):535-40.
9. Díaz Rosas CY, Vargas E Cárdenas, Castañeda-Delgado JE, Aguilera-Galaviz LA, Aceves Medina MC. Dental, periodontal and salivary conditions in diabetic children associated with metabolic control variables and nutritional plan adherence. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2018; 19(2):119-126.
10. Ismail AF, Mcgrathb CP, Yiu KYC. Oral health of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2015; 108(3):369-81.
11. Kuźmiuk A, Marczuk-Kolada G, Łuczaj-Cepowicz E, Obidzńska M, Chorzewska E, Wasilczuk U, Kierklo A, Szajda SD. Importance of dental care to maintain oral health of children and youth with type 1 diabetes. Medycyna Pracy. 2018; 69(1):37-44.
Maksymenko AI, Kuz IO, Sheshukova OV. Dental status analysis in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. International scientific and practical conference «New trends and unresolved issues of preventive and clinical medicine»; 2020 September 25-26; Lublin, Republic of Poland, Izdevnieciba «Baltija Publishing»; р. 137.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.