EFFECT OF QUARANTINE ON THE RATE OF DIAGNOSTICS OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent manifestations of malignant tumors in the cranial and cervical regions and they cannot be frequently established until symptoms appear. So there is an urgent need to device methods for the detection of oral premalignant lesions and oral cancer at an early stage in order to improve further patients’ conditions.
The whole world was suddenly affected the uncontrolled spread of the coronavirus. All spheres of life were affected, especially medicine. The strict quarantine for 2 months created problems for the patients. Patients who needed dental care they also suffered from it. Dental medical institutions provided only emergency medical care during the period of quarantine restrictions. The planned treatment was postponed until the quarantine restrictions stopped.
In fact, the entire population of the country was in a state of significant psycho-emotional stress. This was combined with the state of chronic stress, and influenced the number of cancers. This trend can be traced worldwide.
According to the literature, in the United States, squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity takes 3% of all cancers in men and 2% in women. The tendency of this disease in people 50 years older observed all over the world, however, the disease occurs in people aged 32-49 years. About 40% of intraoral squamous cell carcinomas begin on the floor of the mouth or on the lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue. About 38% of all oral squamous cell carcinomas occur on the lower lip; these are usually solar-related cancers on the external surface.
The symptoms of this disease in the initial stages are absolutely nonspecific. Many patients do not attach importance to them. Quarantine restrictions on the provision of advisory assistance make this problem of particular relevance.
The authors of the article have determined that their goal to attract the attention of dentists and family doctors to the problem of early diagnosis of oncological diseases and oral cancer is enough important nowadays. Early, curable lesions are rarely symptomatic; thus, preventing fatal disease requires early detection by screening.
The main goal for such investigations is to attract the attention of dentists and family doctors to the problem of early diagnosis of cancer, including oral cavity.
The article presents the clinical characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Particularly, doctors should pay attention to the variety of symptoms characteristic of the initial period of the disease. Patients may complain of thickening of the tissues of the oral cavity, the presence of white spots, ulcerative lesions, which may be covered with plaque. Slight painful sensations are distinguished as manifestations of other diseases. Sometimes the symptoms are relieved by taking analgesics. Patients self-medicate and postpone visiting a specialized specialist for an indefinite time. This does not trouble both patients and some health workers. It should be noted that a typical symptom in the developed period is fetid odor from the mouth due to decay and infection of the tumor.
Oral lesions are asymptomatic initially, highlighting the need for oral screening. Most dental professionals carefully examine the oral cavity and oropharynx during routine care and may do a brush biopsy of abnormal areas. The lesions may appear as areas of erythroplakia or leukoplakia and may be exophytic or ulcerated. Cancers are often indurated and firm with a rolled border. As the lesions increase in size, pain, dysarthria, and dysphagia may result.
During the period of neglect, cancer of the oral cavity organs quickly spreads and destroys the surrounding tissues, infiltrates the floor of the oral cavity, palatine arches, pharynx, etc.
To illustrate the problems outlined in the article, the authors took a clinical case that combines the problems of early diagnosis of oral cancers. It should be noted that in addition to the “inactivity” of the patient in solving problems that occurred in the oral cavity, the resolution of the situation was inhibited by the introduced quarantine measures.
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