THE PREVALENCE OF MALOCCLUSIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 6-13 YEARS LIVING IN KYIV AND KYIV REGION
For many years, malocclusions have remained one of the most common dental pathologies in the world. Malocclusions are found in every second child and teenager in the world, and their prevalence does not change depending on the stage of the bite. Having polyetiological causes, malocclusions affect most body systems, which are closely related to the functions of respiration, chewing, swallowing, and speech.
Our goal was to obtain up-to-date data on the prevalence of malocclusion in children during the period of mixed and early permanent occlusion. In this study, we examined 674 children aged from 6 to 13 years (with the mean age of 9.2).
The examined patients' occlusion was assessed in three planes: sagittal, vertical, and transverse.
In the sagittal plane, the occlusion was assessed according to Angle’s classification, children were divided into three groups according to this criterion: class I, class II, class III.
The overbite was estimated in the vertical plane. Children were divided into three groups: normal group, overbite, open bite.
The overlap in the lateral areas was estimated in the transverse plane. Children were divided into three groups according to this criterion: normal group, bilateral crossbite, unilateral crossbite.
In 94.51% of all children aged from 6 to 13 years, living in the city of Kyiv and Kyiv region, there was a malocclusion in one of the three planes, regardless of the gender. Only 5.49% of children did not have a malocclusion.
Among the total number of children examined, class I was observed in 324 children, class II in 296 children, class III in 54 children. Among all examined children aged from 6 to 13 years, overbite was diagnosed in 57.27% (386 children). The open bite was determined least often, with the incidence rate of 9.64% (65 children) among the examined 674 children. Unilateral crossbite was observed in 58 children (8.61%) among 674 subjects. In most cases, namely, in 43 children (74.14%) out of 58 children, unilateral crossbite was accompanied by the midline displacement. Bilateral crossbite was detected in 163 children (24.18%) among the total number of respondents.
Bite anomalies in sagittal and vertical planes were observed in 444 children (65.88%), 91 children (13.5%) in the sagittal and transverse planes, 43 children (6.38%) in the vertical and transverse planes, and 59 children (8.75%) in all planes.
Developing a strategy for early prevention and treatment of malocclusion in children, as well as eliminating bad habits are important factors in combating the growing number of patients with orthodontic pathologies.
Our data indicate a high prevalence of malocclusion among children and teenagers and the need to review the prevention management and early treatment of children of this age group.
2. Alhammadi MS, Halboub E, Fayed MS, Labib A, El- Saaidi C. Global distribution of malocclusion traits: A systematic review. Dental Press J Orthod. 2018; 23(6): 40 e41–40 e10.
3. G Lombardo, F Vena, P Negri, S Pagano, C Barilotti. Worldwide prevalence of malocclusion in the different stages of dentition: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2020 Jun;21(2):115-122. doi: 10.23804/ejpd.2020.21.02.05.
4. Doroshenko SI, Javors'ka MM.1 , as., Novakivs'ka G.V. Klinichna epidemiologija prognatychnogo (dystal'nogo) prykusu. - 2017. (Ukrainian)
5. Bezvushko EV, Mis'kiv AL. Dynamika poshyrenosti zuboshhelepnyh anomalij u ditej L'vivs'koi' oblasti. Visnyk problem biologii' i medycyny. – 2015; 2(2): 21-4. (Ukrainian)
6. Bojcanjuk SI, Falins'kyj MM, Ostrovs'kyj PJu. Poshyrenist' zuboshhelepnyh anomalij sered ditej shkil'nogo viku mista Ternopolja. Molodyj vchenyj. 2017; 5: 57-60. (Ukrainian)
7. Flis PS, Rashhenko NV, Filonenko VV, Mel'nyk AO. Poshyrenist' zuboshhelepnyh anomalij ta movlennjevy porushen' sered ditej vikom 6–12 rokiv. Suchasna stomatologija. 2018; 4: 54-7. (Ukrainian)
8. Drok VO. Poshyrenist' zuboshhelepnyh anomalij i zahvorjuvan' parodonta sered pidlitkiv. Ukrai'ns'kyj stomatologichnyj al'manah. 2018; 1: 72-4. (Ukrain- ian)
9. Zajac' OR, Ozhogan ZR. Poshyrenist' defektiv zubnyh rjadiv u ditej v Ivano-Frankivs'kij oblasti. Art of medicine. 2020; 2: 48-53. (Ukrainian)
10. Débora SOUTO-SOUZA, Maria Eliza Consolação SOARES, Ednele Fabyene PRIMO-MIRANDA, Luciano José PEREIRA, Maria Letícia RAMOS- JORGE. The influence of malocclusion, sucking habits and dental caries in the masticatory function of preschool children. Pediatric Dentistry. - 2020.
11. Claudia Lúcia Pimenta Ferreira,Chiarella Sforza,Francesca M. E. Rusconi,Paula Midori Castelo. Masticatory behaviour and chewing difficulties in young adults with temporomandibular disorders. Journal of oral rehabilitation. - 2019.
12. Nesreen A. Salim, Mariam M. Al-Abdullah, Abeer S. AlHamdan & Julian D. Satterthwaite. Prevalence of malocclusion and assessment of orthodontic treatment needs among Syrian refugee children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health. - 2021.
13. Cianetti S, Abraha I, Pagano S, Lupatelli E, Lombardo G. Sonic and ultrasonic oscillating devices for the management of pain and dental fear in children or adolescents that require caries removal: a systematic review. BMJ Open 2018 Apr 28;8(4):e020840.
14. D’Ambrosio V, Vena F, Manganaro L, Cascone P, Boccherini C, Piccioni MG, Pizzuti A, Benedetti Panici P, Giancotti A. Fetal tongue posture associated with micrognathia: An ultrasound marker of cleft secondary palate? J Clin Ultrasound 2020 Jan;48(1):48-51.
15. D’Apuzzo F, Grassia V, Quinzi V, Vitale M, Marzo G, Perillo L. Paediatric Orthodontics. Part 4: SEC III protocol in Class III malocclusion. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2019 Dec;20(4):330-334.
16. Lione R, Buongiorno M, Laganà G, Cozza P, Franchi L. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion with RME and facial mask: evaluation of dentoalveolar effects on digital dental casts. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2015 Sep; 16(3): 217-20.
17. Alhammadi MS, Halboub E, Fayed MS, Labib A, El- Saaidi C. Global distribution of malocclusion traits: A systematic review. Dental Press J Orthod 2018 NovDec;23(6):40.e1-40.e10.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.