THE ANALYSIS OF THE PREVALENCE OF DENTAL ANOMALIES IN UZHHOROD SCHOOLCHILDREN
The health of the oral cavity is an important component of the overall physical, mental and social well- being of each person. It is known that untimely detection and treatment of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies can lead not only to social maladaptation of this category of people but also to an increase in the risk of developing a carious process, periodontal diseases, as well as dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint.
The presence of a dentoalveolar anomaly in a child can lead to a social disadvantage of patients among peers, as well as loss of active career growth in young and mature age. The incidence rate may vary considerably depending not only on the country of research but also on its region, as well as sex and age of the studied categories of people.
The patients' parents specify the type and duration of feeding, the presence of such bad habits as sucking fingers, lips, or the tongue, respiratory features (sleeping with an open mouth), whether a child was followed up by otolaryngologist or neurologist for adenoids, sinusitis, rhinitis, as well as other diseases that can negatively affect the development of the patient's chewing apparatus.
In an objective examination, attention was paid to the disturbance of nasal breathing, visually evaluated the amplitude and TMJ movement range. With an increase in age in the examined children there was a de- crease in the prevalence of deep bite, while the frequency of detecting mesial, open bite, as well as the dis- placement of dental arches from the middle line, increased. Rotated teeth, as well as disturbance of interdental gaps was detected more frequently with age while diastems were detected less frequently.
The sharp decrease in the frequency of dental anomalies is observed in the transition from the II period of a variable bite (11-13 years) to the period of a constant bite (14-17 years). The study showed that regular check-ups are the most effective methods for identifying patients with tooth anomalies in schoolchildren and can significantly reduce the number of patients who need this type of treatment with an adequate orthodontic care management.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies in schoolchildren of Uzhgorod.
Material and methods. The study involved 339 schoolchildren in Uzhgorod. An analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies was carried out in three age groups: the first period of the mixed bite (6–9 years), the second period of the mixed bite (10–13 years), and the permanent bite (14–17 years).
Results. It has been shown that dentoalveolar anomalies occur in the majority (78.6%) of school-age children. The most common anomalies of the teeth position (47.1%) and anomalies are the ratios of dental arches (37.3%). Anomalies in the size of the jaws (11.5%) and dentoalveolar anomalies of functional origin (4.1%) occur less often. However, 70.4% of all dentoalveolar anomalies are combined. Dentofacial anomalies were observed in children aged 10 to 13 years (II period of a shifting bite) more often. A sharp decrease in the frequency of dentoalveolar anomalies is observed during the transition from the II period of a mixed bite (11-13 years) to the I period (14-17 years) of a permanent bite.
Conclusion. The study showed that medical examinations and preventive examinations are the most effective methods for identifying patients with dentoalveolar anomalies in schoolchildren and, with the adequate orthodontic care management, can significantly reduce the number of patients requiring this type of treatment.
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