DYNAMICS OF INDICATORS OF DECIDUOUS TEETH CARIES IN CHILDREN 3-5 YEARS OLD
Children's dental health has always been and remains an extremely important issue in modern society. According to the WHO, the incidence of dental caries in different countries and among different contingents ranges from 80% to 98%. In recent decades, there has been a growing trend among children. Of particular concern is the significant incidence of early dental caries in children, which is up to two years 62%, and at three years 70.3%. Effective prevention programs and early treatment of caries can improve the quality of children's dental health, and consequently the quality of their general physical health. The aim of our study was to study the dynamics of caries of deciduous teeth (prevalence, intensity, treatment necessity of deciduous teeth, the level of dental aid) in 3-5 years old aged children (observation during the year). All children were examined for the prevalence (%) and intensity of caries of deciduous teeth by the DEF-index and their increase was found in all age groups. The increase in caries for each age group is from 0.2 to 0.3 teeth. The prevalence of caries was studied at each age. 3-year-old children had a caries prevalence of 36.0 ± 6.85%. One year after the first examination, the prevalence of caries in 4-year-old children was now 42.0 ± 7.05%, which is 6% more than a year ago. The same trend is observed in children in the period from 4 to 5 years. The increase in the prevalence of caries in this group for the year is 6.7%. And in the group 5-year-old children the increase in the prevalence of caries per year was 3.1%. Comparison of children 4-year-old, but different groups did not reveal a significant difference. And at the age of 5 a probable difference in the prevalence of caries was revealed. Children with preventive work had a prevalence of 44.0 ± 5.77% against a group of children who were not provided with recommendations for maintaining dental health (65.3 ± 4.91%). In general, in children 3-5-years-old during first examination, the prevalence of caries was 49.1 ± 7.21%. During the year, the increase in the prevalence of caries in the same group of children, but 4-6-years-old, is only 4.9%. The intensity of caries indicates a slight increase in the number of teeth with caries in each group of children. But a comparison of this indicator in children of the same age of different periods of the survey revealed a probable difference at the age of 5 years (1.9 ± 0.35 teeth) (children who were recommended) against 2.7 ± 0.33 teeth (examined 1 year ago).
The treatment necessity of deciduous teeth is 54% and the level of dental aid is 13%. Carrying out preventive work with children and their parents on selection of subjects and means of hygiene, regular care of an oral cavity, observance of a healthy food, necessity of sanitation of an oral cavity gave the chance to increase quantity of fillings at children of 4-6 years in comparison with 3-5 years and reducing the number of removed teeth due to complicated caries. Effective prevention programs and early treatment of caries can improve the quality of children's dental health, and consequently the quality of their general physical health. Timely and planned oral hygiene is a common and effective method of prevention of caries and periodontal disease in young patients. That is why a significant place in the prevention of caries in children is occupied by hygienic education and upbringing of children and their parents.
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