STRUCTURE AND PREVALENCE OF PERIODONTIC TISSUE DISEASES IN SMOKERS USING TOBACCO HEATING PRODUCTS
Periodontal pathologies are one of the predominant groups of oral cavity diseases, so the problem of their treatment or prevention is quite relevant. Periodontal disease in patients who use tobacco heating systems is currently understudied.
Materials and methods of research. The study involved 187 people using tobacco heating products (the main group) and 60 people without this habit (comparison group), without other concomitant diseases. Patients were examined according to generally accepted methods: subjective (life history and medical history) and objective (examination, percussion, palpation, probing) parts, as well as radiographic analysis. Structural dystrophic changes in the bone tissues were thoroughly assessed using orthopantomography.
Research results. It was found that chronic catarrhal gingivitis and localized periodontitis in patients of the main group who smoked using tobacco heating devices occurred 3, 7, and 2.8 less often than in the comparison group (p <0.01, p <0.05). Generalized periodontitis of initial severity in patients of the main group was 3.6 times more common than in patients of the comparison group (29.95 ± 3.35% vs. 8.33 ± 3.56%, p<0.01). Grade I GP was detected in 78 patients who smoked using tobacco heating devices (41.71±3.61%), which was 2.8 times higher than in the comparison group (15.00 ± 4, 60%, p <0.01). Grade II GP was diagnosed in 10 patients (5.35 ± 1.64%) of the main group, but there were no patients with such disease in the comparison group.
Studying the structure of periodontal diseases depending on age shows that the amount of chronic catarrhal gingivitis and localized periodontitis in people who smoked using tobacco heaters decreased with age. Thus, at the age of 18 25 years it was 29.41 ± 7.81%, p> 0.05 and 20.59 ± 6.93%, respectively, in patients aged 26 36 years 22.39 ± 5.09% and 16.42 ± 4.53%, respectively, p> 0.05, and in patients aged 37 44 years, HCG and localized periodontitis were not diagnosed at all, p <0.01.
In patients of the main group aged 18 25 years, GP of initial severity was diagnosed in 50.0 ± 8.57% of subjects p <0.01 and decreased with age to 40.30 ± 5.99% in patients aged 26 36, p <0.01, and to 13.95±3.74% in patients aged 37 44 years, p> 0.05. In the age range of 18 25 years in patients who smoked using tobacco heating devices, GP I severity was not found, but at the age of 26 36 years, this disease was detected in 20.89 ± 4.97% of examined patients, p <0.01 and increased with age, reaching its maximum values (74.42 ± 4.70%) at the age of 37 44 years, p> 0.05.
GP of the II severity degree was diagnosed only in the older age group (37 44 years) in 11.63 ± 3.46% of patients in the main group, p <0.01.
The prevalence of GP of the initial severity in the comparative group increased with the age of patients. Thus, in persons aged 18 25 years, GP of the initial degree of severity was not determined, but at the age of 26 36 years this disease was diagnosed in 3.85 ± 3.77% of those examined, and most often (26.67±11.41%, patients) GP of initial severity was diagnosed in patients aged 37 44 years. Grade I GP in non-smokers was diagnosed only in the older age group of 37 44 years in 60.00 ± 12.64% of those examined, which was 1.2 times lower than in the main group, p> 0,05. GP of the II severity degree in the comparison group was not diagnosed.
Analyzing the impact of smoking on age groups, it was found that the features of early dystrophic-inflammatory lesions of the periodontium and its rapid progression due to atrophic-osteoporotic processes in the macroorganism were caused by tobacco consumption.
Conclusion. The analysis of the obtained studies showed that patients who smoke using tobacco heating devices tended to increase the frequency of periodontal diseases and their severity.
The prospect of further research is to study the structure and prevalence of periodontal disease in people who smoke using devices for heating tobacco depending on the time of smoking, as well as the development and implementation of individual effective treatment and prevention measures.
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